第16章 思想與表達之區別及合併─電腦程式結構保護之界線

16.2 思想與表達區分及合併原則源於美國聯邦案例法

16.2          思想與表達區分及合併原則源於美國聯邦案例法
       思想與表達之區別源自美國著作權法。美國聯邦最高法院1879年在Baker v. Selden[11]案面臨簿記系統能否賦與著作權之獨占權利之爭議[12]。最高法院認為系爭之特殊簿記方法(a particular method of bookkeeping)屬實用性之技術(useful art)不受著作權法之保護,宣稱:「著作權不能延伸至系統之方法或使用」(That copyright, however, does not extend to the method or use of the system described), 且稱:「如未使用書中例示插圖之方法、圖形或其他相似之內容,該教學即無法進行,則對於該技巧而言,該方法及圖形應認為係必要事件,應均屬於公共財產。」[13]本判決不僅為思想與表達區分之濫觴,且已闡釋了思想與表達合併原則之精義[14]。1976年美國著作權法第102條並明文納入此思想與表達區分之原則。
 

 
[11] Baker v. Selden, 101 U.S. 99(1879).
[12] Id. 101 U.S. at 101.
[13] Id. 101 U.S. at 104. (“Where the art[i.e. the method of accounting]it teaches cannot be used without employing the methods and diagrams used to illustrate the book, or such as are similar to them, such methods and diagrams are to be considered as necessary incidents to the art, and given to the public.”); see also Mazer v. Stein, 347 U.S. 201, 217(1954).
[14] 很顯然地,在本案件之論理過程乃是形成百年後思想與表達理論之基礎。See Computer Associates International, Inc. v. Altai, Inc., 982 F.2d 693,707 (2d Cir. 1992) (“The Portion of Baker v. Selden,…which denies copyright protection to expression necessarily incidental to the idea being expressed, appears to be the cornerstone for what has developed into the doctrine for merger.”).